04 November 2014

Simple, Basic & Fundamental Pattern in English

English has its own unique patterns. It differs from other languages. To understand the pattern (structure) of English Language, we should know deeply how simple, basic & fundamental pattern in English constructs. What I want to show you this time is how Indonesian people comprehend English pattern based on their dialectical district language, such as, Javanese, Sundanese, Padangese, Bataknesse and Baliness which have specific dialect in their communication.

The simple, basic and fundamental pattern which I mean:
  • Nominal Pattern, and

  • Verbal Pattern.

Nominal Pattern shows how words are constructed based on two main position; As a subject and a predicate. Subject tends to show who does the deed or action and, Predicate is the object of the doer. As an object, in this case,  is not object in its function/uses or position. It is the way for us to understand how predicate means to be.

13 March 2014

Speaking with Foreigner - Native Speakers

 

Do you speak English?


Speaking with native speaker is fun. We learn many things that we know. For beginner, speaking for the first time feels nervous and do not know what to say and how to express something even when we misunderstand what the native speakers talk about. Feeling nervous is normal. It comes from our real soul. It does not mean that it is bad. Everybody gets in through with this.

To reduce the feelings, we need relax and even though our English is not good enough, we try to do our best by saying "Hello" for the first time we meet. Just say hello even if we say nothing after that.

 

This is about how to start.

The solution is simple. Take care of our English and practice it as often as possible. By easy stages, we will get accustomed to. Without starting to say something, we would never be brave. The key is "start to go". Start to say. Say everything you wish even if you say, "Hello". That's a good start.

09 February 2014

A Study Case of Indonesian Accent

Indonesia has many native languages, such as, Bataknese, Balinese, Sundanese, etc. It spreads out Indonesia's islands. This impacts the way of life and how to interact to other people specially in speaking.
For instance, when Javanese speaks Indonesian Language, they speak fluently but they have unique intonation and the way how to say something heavily. This, of course, makes English language looks stranger and hard to learn. 

Grammatically, their English structure is good enough but they usually use "Tobe" in every words they want to talk about.
For example:

He is study English.
They are students.
We is learn English.

01 February 2014

The Differences of Present Participle and Gerund

Study this follows!

a) He loves painting.
b) He is painting.

Both of the sentences above are different. (a). /He loves painting/ is built from gerund and (b) /He is painting/ is built from participle or present participle.

Gerund

Basically, gerund is a verb. But when it is in a certain structure, it becomes a noun. How could that be like that? It is because gerund does not indicate that someone or a thing is doing an activity or to do something physically. It means that gerund is the way to express something or to give a tell or to inform someone about one's activity (both habitual actions and daily activities).
Mostly gerund is positioned in a context which the point of the information is served to someone.

For example:
I like smoking.
Waiting is boring.
My hobby is swimming.

09 January 2014

Object or Complement

For foreign language learners, To find the difference between Object and Complement in one case which is going to discuss below is difficult. Here, I'm trying to discuss the lesson.

Object is something done by subject. It refers to an action (done by subject). Complement is to give more information about the verb. There has been a gap between the two (actually) differences.

Understand What Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
For example:

1. Tina goes home late every day.
2. Tina is drawing a beautiful painting.

How to understand English Sentence or Structure

taken from: red-grey.co.uk
Every languages has its own uniqueness as well as English language. In English grammar, structure points to how the group of words combines and builds a full meaningful sentence. All patterns that we found in the structure of English language point to two mainkinds of sentences; Verbal and Nominal sentence. Therefore, the discussion should be based on these two sentences.


Sentence Structure 1: Verbal Sentence

Verbal Sentence is a sentence which contains one subject and bare-infinitive. (Notice that bare-infinitive, in this case (author's terminology), can be present verb, past form verb and past participle or the third verb (see. Irregular/regular verb).
For example:
I work (work=Present verb)
I worked (worked=Past form verb)
I have worked (have+worked=Past participle)

09 June 2013

Conditional Sentence | If Clause | Type Two

In the previous lesson, we talked about Conditional Sentence Type I. Now, Let's get a move on!

Conditional Sentence Type Two

Study this following illustration!
www[dot]crunchyroll[dot]com


/I would do whatever/ is called:

Main Clause or Independent Clause.

It is because it can stand alone without /If he called my name/. Then, the last one is;

Sub-clause or Dependent Clause.

It is because it can not stand alone without a main clause.


23 May 2013

Conditional Sentence | If Clause | Type One

Conditional Sentence or If Clause, according to Wikipedia.org, are sentences expressing factual implications, or hypothetical situations and their consequences. They are so called because the validity of the main clause of the sentence is conditional on the existence of certain circumstances, which may be expressed in a dependent clause or may be understood from the context.

Further, it states that A full conditional sentence (one which expresses the condition as well as its consequences) therefore contains two clauses: the dependent clause expressing the condition, called the protasis; and the main clause expressing the consequence, called the apodosis. An example of such a sentence (in English) is the following:

        If it rains, the picnic will be cancelled.

The example above is then called Conditional Sentence Type I. This following illustration will give you best vision of what conditional sentence is.

From the picture here, it explains that the conditional event (If it rains) is positioned as a sub clause:

If + Main Clause

In this case, /If/ is conjunctive.
When the condition is true, the main clause /the picnic will be cancelled/ will be true as well. On the other hand, the sentence or main clause /the picnic will be cancelled/ dependes on the sub clause /if it rains/. That is why it has 50:50 in true or false.

This condition is called Type I where sub clause and main clause has the same result (true or false) in the future.

From the explanation above, the structure of the conditional sentence determines what pattern will be used to make a condition sentence type I. Here, it is built from sub clause in present simple and simple future tense.

Study this following pattern:

If it rains =  
Conjunction + Simple Present Tense in Verbal sentence.
The picnic will be cancelled =  
Simple Future Tense.

When it is implied in the formula, it should be like this:

Conj. IF + Subject + Verb, Subject + Will + Bare-Infinitive.

See you tomorrow!

19 April 2013

Simple Future Tense

Simple Future Tense

Usage: Simple Future Tense is used to express something will happen (or be predicted) in the future time. Therefore, Plan is included in this tense.

For example:
I will be there tomorrow.

In English Lessons, the sentence above modifies something will happen in the future tense: /will be there/ and the sentence is emphasized by the adverb of time /tomorrow/.
To express future action, we also use the pattern of progressive tense.

For example:
I am leaving for a journey tomorrow.

The sentence includes future action /be + leaving for a journey/ and /tomorrow/. However, the adverb of time can not be the priority to express future action.

Besides, we can build a future action by using one of the members of Modal Auxiliary, such as will or shall or the synonym: be + going to + bare-infinitive.

Future in Nominal Pattern

In English grammar, talking about pattern will be faced to two main patterns, they are: Nominal and Verbal Pattern. In Nominal pattern, future tense will be like this:

Subject + Will/Shall + be + non-verbs

Take notice that non-verbs in this case is, such as, noun, adjective, noun phrase, adverb or pronoun.

For example:
I will be here. (/here/ is adverb of place)
We shall be on time. (/on time/ is adverb of time)
I will be yours someday. (/yours/ is pronoun - possessive adjective)

Future in Verbal Pattern

 Future in Verbal Pattern will place the infinitive (Bare-Infinitive) as a center of the pattern which will be combined to modal auxiliary /will/ or /shall/.

Subject + Will/Shall + Bare-Infinitive

 -->Note: No BEs are placed in this pattern.

For Example:
She will marry me soon.
Andi will go shopping with Anne tomorrow.


17 April 2013

Simple Present Tense


USAGE: We use the simple present tense when we would like to express;
a.       Daily Activities,
b.      Habitual Action or Events,
c.       General Truth

NOMINAL SENTENCE

KEY: Use Be-Present (Is, Am, Are) behind the Subjects!, like;

SUBJECT
BE-PRESENT
I

Saya

Am
You
Kamu/kalian
Are
We
Kami/kita
Are
They
Mereka
Are
He
Dia (LK)
Is
She
Dia (PR)
Is
It
Dia (Selain Orang)
Is

For Examples:

            I am happy. ( Saya senang )
            You are sleepy. ( Kamu mengantuk )
            We are hungry. ( Kami lapar )
They are students. ( Mereka pelajar )
She is in the hospital. ( Dia di rumah sakit )
He is an English teacher. ( Dia seorang guru bahasa Inggris )
It is a picture. (Ini/Itu sebuah gambar ).

Take notice that we do not use Verb as the Predicate but, Adjectives (Kata Sifat), Noun (Kata Benda), Adverb (Kata Keterangan), Noun Phrase (Prase Kata Benda) and Pronoun (Kata Ganti). Therefore we can conclude the formation, as;

SUBJECT
BE-PRESENT
NOUN
NOUN PHRASE
ADJECTIVE
ADVERB
PRONOUN
We also can put adverb (quality) before Noun, Noun Phrase, Adjective, adverb, or Pronoun, like ; very (sangat), so (begitu/sangat), too (terlalu/terlampau), etc.

For Examples;

            I am so sorry. ( Saya begitu menyesal........... saya mohon maaf)
            She is very angry at me. ( dia sangat marah padaku)
They are too ugly to be a cover boy. (mereka terlalu jelek (muka) untuk
menjadi seorang Cover Boy)


When we would like to make a Negative Sentence, put “NOT” behind the “BE-Present”!, like;

Be + Not
Abbreviated
Meaning
Am not
-
Bukan/tidak
Are not
Aren’t
Bukan/tidak
Is not
Isn’t
Bukan/tidak

For Examples;

He
Is not

He
Isn’t
My uncle, Tom.
He’s
not


I
Am not



Sleepy.
I’m
not


They
Are not

They
Aren’t
In hospital.
They’re
Not


To make an interrogative sentence, put the Be-present at the beginning of the sentence, like;

            Am I confused ? of course not ! ( Apakah saya bingung? Tentu saja tidak! )
            Is she bored of my speaking? ( Apakah dia bosan dengan bicaraku? )
            Are they afraid of dog? ( Apakah mereka takut dengan anjing? )
            Is it good to eat? ( Apakah ini/itu baik dimakan? )
            Is it difficult to do? ( Apakah ini/itu sulit dilakukan? )

Negative-Interrogative Sentence

KEY: Put /aren’t/, /isn’t/, or /am I not/ at the beginning of the sentence!

For Examples;
           
            Aren’t you a soldier?
            ( Bukankah kamu seorang prajurit? )

            Isn’t he interested to live in the city?
            (Bukankah dia tertarik menetap di kota? )

            Am I not responsible for this club?
            ( Bukankah saya bertanggung jawab dengan Klub ini? )
or,
            Are you not a soldier?
            Is he not interested to live in the city?
            Am I not responsible for this club?

Note:  If you answer “Yes”, It means that you are not a soldier; he is not interested to live in the city; you are not resposible for that club.

 

VERBAL SENTENCE

KEY: Only use Bare-Infinitive! So, do not use be-present in it!

SUBJECT
BARE-INFINITIVE

For Examples;

SUBJECT
BARE-INFINITIVE
OBJECT/ADVERB/
COMPLEMENT
I
go
to Magelang by bike.
She
learns
English every night.
He
works
for Delt@ Computer.
They
blame
me.
We
get
tired of the job.
It
flies
without wings.
His mother
goes
shopping every monday.
The student
comes
to my party on time.

            Take notice that the bare-infinitive adds the suffix ‘/-s/ or /-es/’ when the subject  /she/, /he/, or /it/ is used. Meanwhile, there is No suffixes used when the subject is /I/, /you/, /we/, or /they/.

Look at this following changes!

            Learn    è         Learns
            Work    è         Works
            Fly        è         Flies
            Go        è         Goes
            Come   è         Comes

Remember that the changes above does not change the meaning.
However, the suffixes will be omitted when the sentence is changed into Negative or Interrogative. (look at the Negative and Interrogative section!)

Suffix /-es/

Add the suffix /-es/ when the bare infinitive has this following formation of letter in the end, they are;

            /-ch/, /-sh/, /-o/, /-x/, /-s/, or /-ss/ and few of /-y/.

            Examples; watch, wash, fix, kiss, miss, go, do, teach, fetch, push, etc.

Not all the bare infinitives which belongs /-y/ can be added by the suffix /-es/. It depends on this formation;

Consonant

Y


            Examples;
           
            Cry       ------------------      consonant /-r-/ + /-y/
            Fry       ------------------      consonant /-r-/ + /-y/
            Try       ------------------      consonant /-r-/ + /-y/
            Study   ------------------      consonant /-d-/ + /-y/
                                                                        Note: /-r-/ or /-d-/ is a Consonant.
But, when the formation is “ Vowel + /-y/ “, just put the suffix /-s/ at it, like; Pay, Stay,
Play, say, etc. Warning ! This rule only happens in the Verbal Sentence......

Suffix /-s/

Only add the suffix /-s/ when the bare infinitive does not have the rule like above.

Negative Sentence

KEY-1:  Use the auxilliary Do + not ( or, Don’t ) when the subject is /I/, /You/, /We/, or /They/!
                       
For Examples;

            (+)        Solihin and I need to attend the meeting.                                   
            (--)        Solihin and I do not need to attend the meeting.

            (+)        They have the CD player.
            (--)        They don’t have the CD player.

            (+)        I like staying at home.
            (--)        I do not like staying at home.


KEY-1:  Use the auxilliary Does + not ( or, Doesn’t )when the subject is /I/, /You/, /We/, or /They/!

For Examples;

            (+)        She sleeps soundly every night.
            (--)        She doesn’t sleep soundly every night.


            (+)        Miss Eva passes the exam.
            (--)        Miss Eva does not pass the exam.

            (+)        It jumps over the stream.
            (--)        It doesn’t jump over the stream.

Interrogative Sentence ( Yes/No Question )

KEY: Put the auxilliary Do or Does at the beginning of the sentence!


For Examples;

            X:         Does she remember me ?
            ( Apakah dia ingat padaku? )
Y:         Yes!
Or,        Yes, She does.
                        No, she doesn’t.
                        She doesn’t.
                       
            X:         Do you need something to drink?
                        ( Apakah kamu perlu sesuatu untuk diminum? )
                                                ---------or, ( Apakah kamu mau minum? )
            Y:         Yes!
            Or,        Yes, I do.
                                    No, I don’t.       
                                    I don’t.

            X:         Do you have some money?
                        ( Apakah kau punya uang? )
            Y:         Yes!
                        Or,        Yes, I do.
                                    No, I don’t..
                                    I don’t.

            X:         Do your sisters do the assignments?
                        ( Apakah saudara2 perempuanmu mengerjakan tugas-tugas
 itu? )
            Y:         Yes!
                        Or,        Yes, they do.
                                    No, they don’t..
                                    They don’t.

            X:         Does it work well?
                        ( Apakah ia bekerja dengan baik? )
            Y:         Yes!
                        Or,        Yes, It does.
                                    No, It doesn’t.
                                    It doesn’t.

Negative-Interrogative Sentence

KEY: Put the auxilliary Don’t or Doesn’t at the beginning of the sentence!


For Examples;

            Don’t you pick him up?
            ( Tidakkah kau menjemputnya? )

            or,  you can say:

            Do you not pick him up?
            ( Apakah kau tidak menjemputnya? )