Basic English Grammar
Tanggal Terbit: February 1, 2010


Look and study at this following table!

The pronoun like; /I/, /you/, /we/, /they/, /he/, or /she/ is used for Personal Pronoun, and the pronoun /It/ is used for Impersonal pronoun.

KEY: Subject is the Doer. It determines the Predicate ( Verb, adjective, adverb, noun, noun phrase or pronoun ). No subject means no sentence!. Subject is commonly placed at the beginning, or before the verb of a sentence, like;

    I see the moon.
    They hold a meeting three times a year.

I and they are called “ Subjective Pronoun “. They are two of pronoun as a subject. However, noun or noun phrase can be a subject, like;

    The house is very large.
    Mrs. Anthony lives in a beautiful cottage.
    My English teacher likes reading “Mamamia” magazine.
We also can say that;

    It is very large.
    She lives in a beautiful cottage.
    She likes reading “Mamamia” magazine.

KEY: Object is the Result of what subject does. Object is commonly placed after the bare infinitive, especially after Transitive Verb.

Transitive Verb is a kind of verb which requires an object ( in this case, Objective Pronoun, like; /me/, /you/, /us/, /them/, /him/, /her/, or /it/ ), like;

    Help, cook, watch, buy, leave, eat, read, listen, take, make, call, join,etc

For Examples;

    Tono helps me lift the table.
    (Tono membantu saya mengangkat meja itu)

    The girl leaves him alone.
    (Anak perempuan itu meninggalkan dia sendirian).

    An old man watches them every midnight..
    ( Seorang laki-laki tua mengawasi mereka setiap tengah malam ).   

    He doesn’t join us any longer.
    ( Dia tidak bergabung dengan kita lagi ).

    I want to buy  it for you.
    ( Saya ingin membelikan itu/ini untuk kamu ).

Besides, we can also use noun or noun phrase as an object, like;

    We take this basket to the garage.
    ( Kami membawa keranjang ini ke garasi )

Intransitive Verb doesn’t need an object. The verb /Go/, /dance/, /sleep/, /stay/, or /live/, etc  is some of the Intransitive Verbs.

For Examples;

    Liza dances beautifully.
    Mukhlisin goes to Tanjung Karang.

Take notice that the word /beautifully/ or /to Tajung Karang/ is not an object, but they are adverb of manner and adverb of place.
The words after the Intransitive verb below are not the objects. But they are complements ( Pelengkap ). We can make it by using this formation, that is, “ Preposition + Objective pronoun.

For Examples;

    Liza dances with him.
    ( Liza menari bersamanya.)

    Mukhlisin goes to Tanjung Karang with me.
    ( Mukhlisin pergi ke Tanjung Karang bersamaku.)

KEY: Possessive adjective is a kind of pronoun which modifies possession (Kepemilikan) of a noun or thing.

Formation :

Note that this formation above can be placed in both subject and object position in a sentence.

For Examples;

    My younger brother Daus loves to play guitar.
    ( Adik laki-laki saya Daus suka sekali bermain gitar )

    The man wants to see your father.
    ( Orang itu ingin bertemu ayahmu )

    She cares of her pet very much.
    ( Dia sangat menyayangi hewan piaraannya.)

    Their car is new and expensive.
    ( Mobil mereka baru dan mahal.)

    Silvia Anggraeni is my pretty younger sister.
    ( Silvia Anggraeni adalah adik-perempuanku yang cantik.)
    Mr.Solihin finds our bags.
    ( Pak Solihin menemukan tas-tas kita.)

KEY: Possession is a kind of possessive pronoun which does not require a noun or thing to form it, but possession includes it.

For Examples;

    This book is mine.
    ( Buku ini adalah kepunyaanku.)

    I want to be yours.
    ( Aku ingin menjadi milikmu.)

    it’s not his!
    (Ini bukanlah kepunyaannya.)

KEY: Reflexive pronoun is a kind of pronoun which places itself as a reflexive or an adjective and modifies a subject.

For Examples;

    I myself invite him to our sister’s wedding-party.
    ( Saya sendiri yang mengundangnya ke pesta pernikahan saudara perempuan kita)

    He sees himself in the mirror.
    ( Dia melihat dirinya (sendiri) di cermin.)

Relexive pronoun can be followed by preposition “/by/”, which has the same meaning as “ alone “ (Sendirian), like;

    The old woman lives in the country by herself. or,   
    The old woman lives in the country alone.
    (Perempuan tua itu hidup di dusun sendirian.)
/-self/ is different of /-selves/. /-self/ is in singular form and /-selves/ is in plural. In this case, you or your positions itself both in singular and plural.

For Examples;

    You yourself decide it..    ( You : kamu, anda ----- singular )
    You yourselves decide it.    ( You : kalian ------------- plural )

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