Basic English Grammar
Tanggal Terbit: March 20, 2010


Object is the opposite of a subject. In Oxford Advanced learner's dictionary of current English, object is:

1.Something that can be seen or touched (e.g. material things or a thing)
2.Person or thing to whichaction of feeling or thought is directed. 

In other words, object is a purpose of something done by a subject. When you hear the word "Object", grammatically, the verb must be in Transitive Verb and the sentence must be in Verbal sentence because the verb is lexical-meaning verb.

From the statement above, we can see that object is a thing or person to which action, feeling or thought is directed (Oxford Gram.). Actually subject and object is the same. sometimes object can be a subject or vice verse. This depends on the point of view or to which the action or feeling of thought is stressed!

For examples:

Andi borrows some books from the library.
Some books had been borrowed by Andi from the library.

Like the definition above, object is a thing or person. This definition is too general. Here lat me say that object can be formed (from) :


For example:

Shinta called the officer last night.


When pronoun is used as object, the object is called Objective Pronoun (e.g. /Me/, /you/, /us/, /them/, /him/, /her/ and /it/). Possessive adjective (e.g. /my/, /your/, /our/, /their/, /his/, /her/ and /its/)which is combined to noun or phrase can be used as an object. But, Remember that Possesive adjective can not stand alone and must be placed a noun or phrase.

For example:

Milla sent my uncle a piece of letter. (Possessive Adjective)
Milla sent me a piece of letter. (Objective Pronoun)

Besides you can place possession (e.g. /mine/, /yours/, /ours/, /theirs/, /his/, /hers/, and /it/) or objective pronoun (this is commonly used, e.g. /me/, /you/, /us/, /them/, /him/, /her/ and /it/).

For examples:

She took mine.
They informed me the hot news.


Phrase can be position as an object. Phrase is a group of words which doesn't contain the sentence's requirements).

For examples:

I saw a new teacher teaching in room 5.

4.Sub clause

Sub clause is a part of main clause. Sub clause can not stand alone. This can be used when it is combined to main clause. Sub clause usually has the pattern, like : Conjunction + Subject + Verb + Obj/Adv/Compl.

For example:

I don't know what to do.


Direct object is an object to which action, feeling ot thought is directly directed. Indirect object is vice verse.

For examples:

Tina gives something to her.

The sentence is similar to : /Tina gives her something/.

The object in the sentence is : /Something/ and /her/. Take notice that /Something/ is a noun as well as /her/ is. So, what's the difference? Direct object is an object which is taken from a noun or a phrase but, Indirect object is taken from an objective pronoun.

Take notice this illustration below!

Indirect object is often placed behind the verb.

Andi tells me. (?)

The sentence is right in one case but not perfect. Therefore, you have to place or add direct object to the sentence, 

For example:

Andi tells me the news

Me = Indirect Object
The news = Direct Object

Take notice that direct and indirect object can not appear by itself. It needs a 'stimulus' or something or a word to take it out. The word is a verb. The verb must be lexical-meaning verb or the pattern must be in verbal sentence. Besides, the verb is a certain verb. So, not all verbs can make the direct and indirect object appear.

The verbs are like ;

tell, give, lend, show, inform, whisper, etc.

Either direct or indirect object position in a sentence can be exchanged, for instance:

She lent me some books.


She lent some books to me.

So, you need /to/ to exchange it. Take notice of this follows formula!

Have a nice day and good luck!

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