Adverb is a word or Compound word which describes manner, quality, etc and modifies other words. (Adjectives only modifies a noun and pronoun). Adverb has a spesific structure which differs it from other structures like, noun and adjective. There are many types of adverbs in English, but the common usages are listed below.
Types of Adverbs:
1. Adverb of Manner
Adverb of manner modifies a manner to do something. In other words, adverb of manner modifies a verb. In this case, the verb is in lexical-meaning verb.
He runs quickly.
The sentence is the same as /he runs in a quick manner/. The structure of the adverb of manner is adjective which is added a suffix /-ly/ behind it. On previous page, we have already discussed about adverb of manner which has /-ly/ as its characteristic. However, not all adjectives can be added /-ly/, like; /hard/, /well/, /far/, etc.
2. Adverb of Place
Adverb of place is an adverb which refers to a place. Adverb of place is devided into two types;
a)Pure Adverb of Place
Pure Adverb of place is adverb which can be found in an English dictionary and stands as one single word e.g. there, here, etc.
Derivational adverbs is adverb which is made or created from the combination between Preposition and name of place (it can be a noun or pronoun).
I saw the man there. (/There/ is pure adverb of place)
She sits beside me (preposition /beside/ + objective pronoun /me/)
He swims in the river every saturday afternoon. (preposition /in/ + name of a place/noun /river/)
3. Adverb of Direction (Usually the same as adverb of place)
Adverb of direction is adverb which denotes a direction, e.g. away, outside, straight, west, north, etc.
She walked to the north. (Preposition /to/ + name of direction /north/)
4. Adverb of Time
Adverb of time is adverb which modifies a certain time in a speaking. Adver of time structure is the same as adverb of place. This adverb is also made or created from the combination between preposition and name of time. Besides, adverb of time has a pure adverb of time.
He will be back tomorrow. (/tomorrow/ is pure adverb of time)
It was about three years ago. (preposition /about/ and name of time /three years ago/)
The company will close at 7.00 p.m. (preposition /at/ and name of time /7.00 p.m.)
Take notice that adverb of time has two types; first, definite adverb of time and indefinite adverb of time.
Definite adverb of time is adverb of time which gives or denotes a exact time, e.g. /today/, /yesterday/, /tomorrow/ as in /I leave for bandung today/. Here, /today/ denotes an exact time of when /I leave for bandung/ although it doesn't give a spesific time for it, say, at what time? in the evening or in the morning?
Indefinite adverb of time is an adverb of time which has general meaning. This adverb doesn't denotes an exact time, e.g. /recently/, /later, /always/ as in /I'll call you back later/. Here, /later/ can be /today/, /tomorrow/, /next month/, and perhaps, /a hundred years later/ (laughing .....).
5. Adverb of Quality
Adverb of quality is also called as Intensifier. This adverb has two types, they are;
a) To intensify the degree
e.g., very (strong), so (nice), quite (often), etc.
She lifted the heavy boxes alone. She was very strong.
this adverb modifies all parts of speech, e.g. only, even, etc
6. Adverb of Quantity
Adverb of quantity is adverb which denotes a quantity of a noun. This adverb can be /some/, /many/, /few/, /a little/, /several/, etc.
He brought some books.
She just has few friends at school.
The old man travelled several days.
7. Adverb of Frequency
Adverb of frequency is commonly used in modifying or to emphasize the structure of a tense. It usually places before a verb.
I usually go to school by bike.
Sometimes he gets bored of mathematics.
They always come late.
He often listens to the songs at night.
8. Conjunctive Adverb
Conjunctive adverb is adverbs which functions as a conjunction, like; therefore, because, neverhteless, etc.
This adverb also describes a reason, a result, and time.
The children didn't go to school yesterday because it rained heavily.
I rained heavily yesterday therefore the children didn't go to school.
9. Sentence Adverb
Sentence adverb is adverb which modifies a full sentence. This adverb usually places at the beginning of a sentence and use a punctuation /comma/ to separate it.
Unfortunately, she came back before he mentioned her name.
Finally, He's gone.
I, actually, like the game. or, Actually, I like the game.
Basically, Translation method is devided into two parts, grammatical and contextual translation.
see also structure of preposition
see also structure of preposition