Basic English Grammar
Tanggal Terbit: March 30, 2010


Perhaps, most of you ask me about the title above. What's the matter with the preposition?
How can I say that preposition has its structure? does "by", for instance," has a structure? So, what is "by" made from? Is that made froma cake? or cheese? (laughing ....).

Let's go to the point!

A preposition is used to connect a noun structure to others( e.g. pronoun) in a sentence. In other words, preposition is like a bridge which is used to connect between one place to other. So, Noun or pronoun is very important for preposition in order that preposition can be used. This automatically states that without nouns or pronoun, preposition will be nothing!.

According to the usage in cases of sentences, preposition has 6 structures, they are;

1.In a structure of a noun
e.g. I come from Indonesia.

2.In a structure of a pronoun
e.g. He gave it to me

Note:Pronoun here may be an objective pronoun and possession

For examples:

I need you. (Objective pronoun)
She is one of friends of mine (Possession)

3.In a Gerundial Phrases
e.g.I object to telling the information to him.

4.In a noun clause
e.g. I object to telling the information to who stole my money.

5.In a part of verb (But, it has full meaning verb)
e.g. I get up early every morning.

note: /get up/ and others, like; keep on, carry out, get on, go up, give up, etc, is also called a phrasal verb. Why phrase? It is because the verb forms a phrase by placing a preposition behind it and create a new and full meaning which differs from the original verb.

For example:

get = to gain something
get up = e.g. get up from lying down, get up from bed or get up from failure.

6.In a part of verb (But, the preposition describes something else, like a direction or a place)
e.g. When I look into your eyes, there's ....... (/into/ denotes something exist inside).

As you know that Preposition is usually placed before its noun object. But sometimes, preposition can be placed in the end of the sentence with or without a noun beside it.

For examples:

That's the house where I live in. (With a full verb /live/)

This sentence dontes a place which described by /that's the house/.

What's on tonight?

This sentence has preposition which stands alone without others, like a verb or noun or pronoun. However, The preposition /on/ has a function as an adverb to indicate that something is on or off, say, a film. In other cases, /on/, here, describes the hit or rank, e.g. The company reaches its highest target tonight while others not.


Preposition has three forms in its usage;

1)simple preposition, preposition has single part, e.g. of, on, by, near, off, in, at, etc.
2)two parts of preposition, preposition which is created from the combination of words and a certain particle.
e.g. instead of, because of, so that, as for, apart from, etc
3)three parts of preposition, preposition has three parts in use, e.g. by means of, in regard to, etc.


When preposition is combined to other words and has a full meaning, it is called "Prepositional phrase".

According to its function, prepositional phrase has functions, as;

1.Adverbial, as in, they stood under the tree. (denotes a certain place ---> Adverb of place)
2.Adjectival, prepositional phrase which modifies or give some information to a noun.
  e.g. I have got to attend the meeting at seven o'clock.
3.Nominal, preposition which is placed after a full verb. This is usually called "Prepositional object". Object here denotes a place where the prepositional phrase is placed, i.e., after a full verb.

Note that Adverb can be modified. see also modifying adverb clause.

For examples:

I am waiting for her.

Notice that the preposition /for/ is placed after the verb /waiting/.

Preposition, when it has its own building, as in prepositional phrase, it has a position in sentences.

a)initial, placed at the beginning of a sentence.

For example:

For the sake of you, I'll do everything.

b)middle, placed in the middle of a sentence which uses commas in its left and right sides.

For example:

If you wish, for the sake of you, I'll do everything.

c)final, placed in the end of the sentence.

For example:

I'll do everything for the sake of you.

When we would like to show the details, we can placed one prepositional phrase to others at the same time.

For example:

I'll attend the meeting in Bali at 8.00 tonight.

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