USAGE: Present Perfect Tense is used to express something done in the past time and finished or completely done in the present.
KEY: This tense uses the Auxilliary “Have” or “Has” and the third verb. Look at the Regular and Irregular verb to learn about the Third Verb in this book!

Study this following formation!


Notice that we use the auxilliary “Have” when the subject is /I/, You/, /We/, or /They/. And the auxilliary “Has” when the subject is /He/, /She/, or /It/.
The auxilliary (Have or has) has meaning “ telah/sudah” in Indonesian language.

I have told him the announcement.
(saya sudah memberitahunya pengumuman itu)

You have done something important for all of us.
(kau telah melakukan sesuatu yang penting bagi kita semua)

We have bought (her) the souvenir.
(kami sudah membeli (-kannya) cinderamata itu)

They have sung the songs together.
(mereka telah menyanyikan lagu-lagu itu bersama-sama)

She has fallen in love with that handsome man.
(dia telah jatuh cinta pada pria tampan itu)

He has had breakfast with me.
(dia sudah sarapan pagi bersamaku)

It has flown in the high sky. *)
(dia telah terbang di langit yang tinggi)

Note: *) “It” means, such as, a bird, imagination, etc.
In the Negative Sentence of Present Perfect Tense, place “Not” behind the auxilliary, like;

Have + Not or, Haven’t (Belum)
Has + Not or, Hasn’t (Belum)

I haven’t met him before
She hasn’t admitted his guilty
You haven’t told us the truth (tell the truth = say/tell honestly)
He hasn’t given me the change (Change = uang kembalian)
They haven’t realized the facts
We haven’t invited them here
It hasn’t come yet. (‘yet’ is commonly used to emphasize
The negative & interrogative sentences)

To ask someone or other people whether he/she has already done something, place the auxilliary at the beginning of a sentence.

Have you picked her up ?
(apakah kau sudah menjemputnya?)

Has she completed the enrollment form?
(sudahkah dia melengkapi formulir pendaftarannya?)

Has he got up yet?
(apakah dia sudah bangun?)

Has he prepared everything for our journey?
(sudahkkah dia mempersiapkan sgl sesuatunya untuk perjalanan kita)

Have you finished the assignments?
(sudahkah klau menyelesaikan tugas-tugas itu?)

Have you spent the night in the five-star hotel?
(Pernahkah *) kamu menginap di hotel berbintang lima?)

Note: *) In some cases, the ‘have’ or ‘has’ in “yes/no” question like above, can be translated “Pernahkah”

To answer the interrogative sentence, we can use the short or the long one, like;

Yes, he has (ya sudah)
yes, I have (ya sudah)
No, he hasn’t (belum)
No, I haven’t (belum)
Yes, I have gone to Bali (ya, saya pernah ke bali)
No, never! (tidak, tidak pernah!)
Well, I have (mmm… udah)
yes!, but only once! (ya! Tapi baru sekali)
Of course I have (tentu saja sudah)
Absolutely yes! (pasti!)
Not yet! (belum!)
Yes, I have. Why? (ya sudah!. Kenapa?)
I’m not sure I have done it! (saya tidak yakin kalau saya sudah
I’m afraid I’ve forgot! (wah rasanya, saya sudah lupa!)
Sure! He’s read it twice! (tentu! Dia sudah membacanya dua

KEY: Like in the previous tenses we have already discussed, all of the tenses have a nominal form which use “be” as the structural-meaning verb. The “be” of Present Perfect tense, in this case, is “Been”.

My uncle, Billy, has been to Australia
(paman saya Billy pernah ke Australi)

They have just been in
(mereka baru saja masuk)

I have been a soldier for three years
(saya sudah menjadi seorang prajurit selama 3 tahun)

We have been absent for a week recently
(kita pernah alpa selama seminggu akhir-akhir ini)

She has never been late before
(dia belum pernah terlambat sebelumnya)

To make a Negative, place “not” behind the auxilliary, and to make an interrogative, place the auxilliary at the beginning of the sentence!
For Examples;

I haven’t been there lately
(saya belum kesana belakangan ini)

Have you ever been to America?
(pernahkah kamu ke Amerika?)

Study this follows!

How have you been. dasy?
(bagaimana khabarmu, dasy?)

It’s been a long time!, Where have you been?
(wah, sudah lama sekali!, darimana saja?)

I’ve been in love with her
(saya sudah jatuh cinta padanya)

There are some adverbs of frequency that are commonly used in the present perfect tense, like;

Already : sudah/telah (this is used to emphasize)
Not yet : belum
Yet : sudah/belum (to emphasize)
Just : baru saja
Ever : pernah (to emphasize)
Never : Tidak pernah
Almost : hampir
Usually : biasanya
Always : selalu, senantiasa
Occasionally : sekali-sekali
Sometimes : kadang-kadang
Before : sebelumnya
Lately : akhir-akhir ini, belakangan ini
Recently : akhir-akhir ini, belakangan ini
So far : sejauh ini, hingga kini
In the last few : selama beberapa ……… terakhir ini
Often : sering, seringkali

The present perfect also has modifiers of time, like; For : selama