English Grammar In Focus
Learning English Grammar As A Foreign Language

date: February 16, 2010

CORE-ELEMENTS OF A SIMPLE SENTENCE (STEP 2)

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In this 3nglish7's terminology, Simple Sentence is a sentence which contains, at least, one subject and one verb. This definition is the same as the definition of the sentence.




To build a sentence, you need the elements, they are;

1. Noun or pronoun
2. Adjective
3. Adverb
4. Verb




The elements are, then, called : 'Core elements'(3nglish7-term).
Take notice that you have to memorize the kinds of core elements in building a sentence as well as this following and further discussion. Let me say that I guarantee if you understand deeply this discussion, you will be able to understand the scope of a context, the details of a sentence and the construction even you will be able to develop your skill in speaking and writing.

Therefore, take your time to learn intensively in order that what you learn in this blog will be valuable and you can achieve the highest comprehension you can.

As you know that there are 8 or more part of speech. however, the core part of speech which is called the core elements is the real point you have to learn intensively. So, concentrate yourself in this discussion.

Let's go to the point!
Before we continue our lesson, let me please explain you that understanding what the noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb or verb is will be the hardest point for you to comprehend. Therefore, here, I will try to discuss it more simple.

NOUN & PRONOUN

Noun is something we can see concretely by using our eyes, like table, policeman, sky, birds, New york (The name of a city or place), Indonesia (The name of a country), Billy john (the name of a person) certificate, books, stone, tree, etc and when we classify the noun (noun, in this case, is concrete Things), we'll find that noun is one of this things illustrated below!





Note: Dead things, here, is like a stone or a rock, sky, a mountain, book, door, house, pen, and the plants are like trees, leaves, flowers, roses,etc.

Noun also includes the abstract things by understanding the process such as, imagination, education, thinking or thought, mind, idea, anger, poverty, life, beauty, kindness, etc.

pronoun is some words that substitute the original status, like;

My name is Liza Fatimah.

When I talk to someone, it is not funny when I say to myself (/my name/) by using my full name or a nickname, right?. I will use the subjective pronoun " I ", of course.
There five elements of pronoun in English. To read more about pronoun, please click here.

ADJECTIVE

Adjective is what characteristic of nouns.

For examples:

a stone is hard.

Here, a stone is a dead thing and it has a characteristic, that is, 'hard'. The word 'hard' is an adjective then.

The students are hungry. (Hungry is an adjective)
Tina is a smart student. (smart is an adjective)
I am sleepy. (sleepy is an adjective)
She is lazy. (lazy is an adjective)
They are bored of the lesson. (bored is an adjective)
The rose is beautiful. (Beautiful is an adjective)
Lion is a wild animal. (wild is an adjective)

Those examples above give us information that the nouns (students, Tina, lion, and rose) has its own characteristics as well as pronoun (I,they and she) is. The all of the characteristics are called 'adjectives'.

ADVERB

Adverb is a word or a phrase (like, 'in a good maner', 'at school') that modifies or give information to us about what the doer (subject) does, adjectives or another.

The child runs quickly.

The word 'quickly' is called 'adverb of manner' because it describes about a way or a manner to do something, that is, 'runs'. We also can say : The child runs in a quick manner.
In this case, the word 'quickly' is a kind of information which points out the action what the doer is doing. Here, the action is runs (runs = verb).

Compare this sentences below!

The child runs.
The child runs quickly.

In the first sentence, we only know that the child does something, that is, /runs/. In the second sentence, we will find that there is one information added in the sentence to make us understand about the way or the manner the child does something, that is, 'quickly'. On the other hand, the adverb /quickly/ colors the verb /runs/.

Besides, there are many kinds of adverbs in English, like:

1. Adverb of Time

For examples:

now, yesterday, tomorrow, early, in the morning, at night, in the middle of the night, in the following day, a long time ago, last month, next year, on time, in time, at 07.30 a.m., in the edge of time, by the end of this month, etc


For examples:

Here, there, at school, in the hospital, beside me, near the river, etc


For examples:

quickly, hard, well, slowly, clearly, diligently, etc

4. Adverb of Frequency

For examples:

seldom, never, normally, usually, often, always, twice a week, everytime, frequently, once, etc


5. Adverb of quality or degree

For examples:

too, so, very, quite, etc

Study this follows!

1. He is so angry.
2. The strange man walks very gentle.
3. it is too heavy to lift.
4. The old man sat in a quite silent room.

6. Adverb of quantity

For examples:

some, any, much, many, several, few, a little, etc

Study This follows!

I have some money.
People know much about me.
Only few students attend the birthday party.

7. Adverb of reason

For examples: hence, therefore, etc

Study This follows!

Today is raining. all students, therefore, go home.

8. Adverb of Negation

For examples: not, surely, certainly, etc.

Study This follows!

He is not the one I love.
My husband will certainly leaves for Canada next week.

VERB

Verb is a vital elements in a sentence as well as a sentence centre. Therefore, the use of a verb is a Must. No verbs, no sentences.

For the first discussion, Verb, in this case, is devided into two basic kinds of verbs, they are:


Lexical, here, means that the verb can be certainly translated into our own language and has an exact and clear meaning when we look up and find it in our dictionary. Structural means that the word can not be translated like the way above in a clear manner or in an exact manner, like "BE".

Lexical-meaning-verb is devided into two types, they are:

1. Bare-Infinitive, and
2. To Infinitive

Bare-infinitive is a verb which is placed after subject.

For examples:

He needs a help now.

The verb /needs/ is a bare-infinitive. It is impossible for us to say, like: " he to needs a help now ".
The use of /To/ or to-infinitive after the subject is false and forbidden. So, What about to infinitive?
To Infinitive is commonly used after the bare-infinitive or to build a phrase (infinitive phrase).

For examples:

He wants to continue his study in a university.

Take notice that to infinitive /to continue/ is placed after bare-infinitive /wants/.


For Example :

To find the answer, please look up your book on page 34!

In the sentence above, to infinitive is use to build an infinitive phrase, that is, /To find the answer/.

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