Basic English Grammar
Tanggal Terbit: March 8, 2010


When we make a sentence or a paragraph, we usually find the difficulties to understand about why the word is used, is placed in a certain position and changes. These questions are submitted by my students even though I have taught and explained together instensively. I realized that theory is not the same as practice.

Study this follows!

1.What makes me sad is because of his deed.
2.I do apologize.
3.No explanation found on the document!
4.I don't know what to do now.

we will discuss and analyse the sentence above in details. Read more ....

To understand a sentence structure, we need to find the main elements of the sentence. But what you have to know first is that sentence is devided into two types; verbal sentence and nominal sentence. You know that a group of words will be called as a sentence or full sentence when there are, at least. two main elements, they are; one subject and one verb.

For examples:

She is my younger sister.
(Nominal sentence - /is/ as astructural-meaning-verb)
She comes on time. (verbal sentence - /comes/ as a lexical-meaning-verb)

From the two sentences above we can devide them like illustration below!

When we try to analyse the forth sentences above, we should devide them first. And try to find the core-elements available.

Core-elements in those sentences are:

- What makes me sad is because of his deed.

What makes me sad = subject
is = structural-meaning-verb
because of his deed = complement.

- I do apologize.

I = subject
do= adverb of quality/degree (=really)

- No explanation found on the document!

Take notice that, when we find such an expression (preceded by /no/), it means that there are two possibilities, they are:

1.Using /It is/ for /no explanation found on the document/.
2.Using /There is/ or /there are/ for /no explanation found on the document/.

When we use /it is/ in the expression, there won't create an exact meaning. But, when we use /there is/ in the expression, there will be an exact meaning.

Take notice!

There is no explanation found on the document.

In other words, the expression /no explanation found on the document/ is a sentence. By omitting the expression /there is/, the state of /no explanation found on the document/ makes clear.

- I don't know what to do now.

My students asked me concerning the sentence above Because they usually write /... what do I do now/ instead of / ... what to do now/. I often found a sentence like that when I asked them to write a short story or a simple passage.

And then I asked them, like this below!

"What about /do you know what to do now?/ ?"

So, it is impossible to say : "do you know what do i do now?" because two questions in one sentence is forbidden and no grammatical rules tells me like that.

The characteristic of English language is the first. I mean that the point or the head of analysis is in the first word, phrase or sentence.
The first sentence is /I don't know/. So, When there is another behind it, we have to make it into positive or negative (statement and, not a question).

Actually, /what to do now/ is a sub clause. and, /I don't know/ is a main clause. They both are in Noun clause discussion.

It is possible for us to say, like;

I don't know what I do now.


I don't know what I should do now.

Take notice that sub clause /what I do now/ or /what I should do now/ is a statement (you can make it into positive or negative sentence, but please, not in an interrogative/question). Because the sub clause has the same subject as the main clause, /to/ is used then. 
So, it becomes;

I don't know what to do.

Remember that when the structure of the sentence is like this below,

It means that It is a sub clause and it can't stand alone without a main clause in its side ......

English Lesson #1

How to understand English Sentence or Structure

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